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One of our resident sea lions, Ronan, is the first non-human mammal shown able to find and keep the beat with musical stimuli. This challenges earlier evidence from humans and parrots suggesting that complex vocal mimicry is a necessary precondition for flexible rhythmic entrainment.
US scientists have trained a seal to bob its head in time to music, in a study that the researchers say presents the first ever evidence that non-human mammals can keep a beat.
It was previously thought that only animals capable of vocal mimicry – birds and humans – could keep a beat in time to music.
In a study published in the Journal of Comparative Psychology, researchers from the University of California Santa Cruz said they had trained a Californian sea lion named Ronan to bob her head in time to songs, including tunes she had not heard before.
“Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioural response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli,” the researchers said.
“These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesised.”
Ronan the seal was trained using fish rewards to dance in time to Creedence Clearwater Revival’s “Down on the Corner.”
She was soon also able to keep time even to songs she had not heard before, including “Everybody” by the Backstreet Boys, and “Boogie Wonderland” by Earth, Wind and Fire.
“Ability to find and keep the beat on two novel, quite different musical stimuli strongly suggests a flexible capability to entrain to complex stimuli,” the authors said in their paper.
The researchers also conducted a test to rule out the possibility Ronan was bobbing her head a split second after hearing the beat – rather than anticipating it and bobbing her head in time to the beat.
In this experiment, she bobbed her head in time to a metronome-like sound which was programmed to skip a beat. Ronan bobbed her head even even when the beat was missed.
Professor Adrian North, Head of the School of Psychology at Curtin University and a specialist in the psychology of music said the findings did not surprise him.
“There’s nothing inherently human about music. Across board, there is an awful lot of research showing that it’s not just humans that react to music in a general way,” he said.
Read the full article on The Conversation
Peter Hollens is an American singer/songwriter, producer and entrepreneur. To say that he makes music is already too far of an understatement. As an a capella pop singer, every song Peter releases is crafted by his voice(and some claps), with no instruments in sight. As much as he loves music, one minute spent with him will tell you that he loves his “Hollensfam” more. And wow, do they love him back: his social profiles combined house over 2.5 million members of the Hollensfam.
He has been involved with a cappella music since 1999 when he and Leo da Silva founded the University of Oregon's a cappella group, On The Rocks, known as the first official collegiate a cappella group in Oregon.Originally from Ashland, Oregon, Hollens graduated from the University of Oregon with a Bachelor of Music in Vocal performance. Since his graduation from the University of Oregon, Hollens has become involved with collegiate a cappella, including recording, producing, and judging a cappella competitions throughout the United States. In 2010, he participated in NBC’s The Sing Off receiving acclaim from The Sing-Off judges Shawn Stockman, Nicole Scherzinger and Ben Folds for solo performances leading his group, On The Rocks.
Peter's music is performed and edited in his own studio and are entirely produced a capella by himself and friends. All sounds are made by the human voice and mouth! :) This entire video is produced performed by Peter and Alex alone.
Check out his Youtube channel and support. Peter Hollens